Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species - Malta

Última versión Publicado por Invasive Species Specialist Group ISSG en Sep 18, 2020 Invasive Species Specialist Group ISSG

The Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species (GRIIS) presents validated and verified national checklists of introduced (alien) and invasive alien species at the country, territory, and associated island level. Checklists are living entities, especially for biological invasions given the growing nature of the problem. GRIIS checklists are based on a published methodology and supported by the Integrated Publishing Tool that jointly enable ongoing improvements and updates to expand their taxonomic coverage and completeness. Phase 1 of the project focused on developing validated and verified checklists of countries that are Party to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). Phase 2 aimed to achieve global coverage including non-party countries and all overseas territories of countries, e.g. those of the Netherlands, France, and the United Kingdom. All kingdoms of organisms occurring in all environments and systems are covered. Checklists are reviewed and verified by networks of country or species experts. Verified checklists/ species records, as well as those under review, are presented on the online GRIIS website ( in addition to being published through the GBIF Integrated Publishing Tool.


Los datos en este lista de chequeo recurso han sido publicados como Archivo Darwin Core(DwC-A), el cual es un formato estándar para compartir datos de biodiversidad como un conjunto de una o más tablas de datos. La tabla de datos del core contiene 291 registros. también existen 2 tablas de datos de extensiones. Un registro en una extensión provee información adicional sobre un registro en el core. El número de registros en cada tabla de datos de la extensión se ilustra a continuación.

  • Taxon (core)
  • Distribution 
  • SpeciesProfile 

Este IPT archiva los datos, sirviendo así como repositorio de datos. Los datos y metadatos están disponibles para descargar en la sección de descargas. La tabla de versiones muestra otras versiones del recurso que se han hecho accesibles al público y permite el seguimiento de los cambios hechos al recurso en el tiempo.


Descargue la última versión de los datos como un Archivo Darwin Core (DwC-A) o los metadatos como EML o RTF:

Datos como un archivo DwC-A descargar 291 registros en Inglés (20 KB) - Frecuencia de actualización: otro periodo de mantenimiento
Metadatos como un archivo EML descargar en Inglés (30 KB)
Metadatos como un archivo RTF descargar en Inglés (29 KB)


La siguiente tabla muestra sólo las versiones publicadas del recurso que son de acceso público.

¿Cómo referenciar?

Los usuarios deben citar este trabajo de la siguiente manera:

Mifsud S, Evans J, Schembri P J, Wong L J, Pagad S (2020): Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species - Malta. v1.2. Invasive Species Specialist Group ISSG. Dataset/Checklist.


Los usuarios deben respetar los siguientes derechos de uso:

El publicador y propietario de los derechos de este trabajo es Invasive Species Specialist Group ISSG. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.

Registro GBIF

Este recurso ha sido registrado en GBIF con el siguiente UUID: dfaf6b4a-43d6-4649-82c7-60f34ddf13ba.  Invasive Species Specialist Group ISSG publica este recurso, y está registrado en GBIF como un publicador de datos avalado por Participant Node Managers Committee.

Palabras Clave

Checklist; Inventorythematic; Alien; Invasive; Validated and verified; country_MT; Checklist


¿Quién creó el recurso?:

Stephen Mifsud
Senior Medical Laboratory Technologist, Botanist
Head Office EcoGozo Directorate MT
Julian Evans
Department of Biology
University of Malta MT
Patrick. J. Schembri
Department of Biology
University of Malta MT
Lian Jenna Wong
Research Assistant
Biodiversity Data Management Ltd NZ
Shyama Pagad
Deputy Chair- Information
IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) NZ

¿Quién puede resolver dudas acerca del recurso?:

Shyama Pagad
Deputy Chair- Information
IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) NZ

¿Quién documentó los metadatos?:

Shyama Pagad
Deputy Chair- Information
IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) NZ

¿Quién más está asociado con el recurso?:

Shyama Pagad
IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) NZ

Cobertura Geográfica


Coordenadas límite Latitud Mínima Longitud Mínima [35.604, 13.953], Latitud Máxima Longitud Máxima [36.351, 15.073]

Cobertura Taxonómica

Animalia, Bacteria, Chromista, Fungi, Plantae, Protozoa, Viruses

Reino  Animalia,  Bacteria,  Fungi,  Plantae,  Protozoa,  Viruses
Filo  Chromista

Datos del Proyecto

The Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species (GRIIS) presents validated and verified checklists of introduced (alien) and invasive alien species at the country, territory level. The development of the GRIIS resource is an initiative supported by the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and was originally implemented within the framework of the Global Invasive Alien Species Information Partnership (GIASIPartnership). The IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG) is the project lead and includes a dedicated GRIIS unit. The resource is designed to support national governments to make progress to achieve invasive alien species targets under the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Sustainable Development Goals; especially in the development of their National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans, their National Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan (NIASAP), target setting and monitoring.

Título Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species GRIIS
Identificador GRIIS
Fuentes de Financiación The GRIIS initiative was developed within the framework of the GIASIPartnership, with co-funding from the European Union through the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity. As coordinator of GIASIP, and on behalf of CBD Secretariat, GBIF has supported the development of GRIIS and its integration into the GBIF data infrastructure to ensure interoperability. In July 2019, GBIF provided direct funding from its core budget to support the completion of GRIIS lists for all countries, EU Overseas Territories and selected islands by March 2020.
Descripción del Área de Estudio GRIIS has global coverage, including overseas territories and regions. Where appropriate, sub-lists have been created for Oceanic Islands- for e.g. Soqotra of Yemen and the Juan Fernandez Islands of Chile. Taxonomic coverage includes all kingdoms of organisms: Animalia, Bacteria, Chromista, Fungi, Plantae, Protozoa, Viruses. The annotations recorded in GRIIS include- Species name and authorship, synonyms if used and authorship, Higher taxonomy (kingdom, phylum, class, order and family), Environment/system in which the species occurs (terrestrial, freshwater, brackish, marine, host), provenance or origin of the species, invasive status of the alien species. The inclusion of additional annotations are planned, including the date of introduction or first record of the alien species, type of introduction (deliberate or accidental), pathways of introduction, impact mechanism and the global EICAT (Environmental Impact Classification of Alien Taxa) category assigned to the species.
Descripción del Diseño The Global Register of Invasive Species (GRIS) was developed as a concept and prototype by the ISSG in 2006 as part of a project undertaken for the Defenders of Wildlife on the Regulation of Live Animal Imports into the United States. Between 2011-2020, the concept was revisited and expanded by the ISSG to address Aichi Biodiversity Target 9 and support its achievement - with the development of the Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species (GRIIS). GRIIS hosted by the ISSG compiles annotated and verified national checklists of introduced (alien) and invasive alien species. Development and population of the GRIIS was undertaken by the ISSG within the framework of activities of the Information Synthesis and Assessment Working Group of the Global Invasive Alien Species Information Partnership. The GRIIS checklist is an annotated species catalogue, or inventory, recorded from a country, an island, protected area, or area of high biodiversity value. Following GBIF's guide to best practices for publishing species checklists (Hanmer et al 2012), the GRIIS checklist includes taxonomic information in a standard way. The checklist is compiled by a team of experts and non-specialists including citizen scientists that have knowledge of species taxonomy, access to reliable and authoritative source information that can be validated and verified (for methods please see Pagad et al. 2018). A summary of the process • The ISSG GRIIS unit conducts a comprehensive review of authoritative and credible information sources and develops a draft annotated country checklist of introduced (alien) and invasive alien species. • Annotations include species name (accepted name and synonym if used by the source), higher taxonomy, environment/system in which the species occurs, biological status (provenance (alien or not) and invasiveness-based on evidence of impact), • Country editor/editors are identified and consulted for advice, including knowledge of additional key data sources • Draft checklists are submitted to country editors for a review of both accuracy of information and to identify any significant gaps. Revisions are implemented based on feedback. • Every species record includes a check (indication) if the status has been verified as such by country editors. In cases where ‘evidence of impact’ information is gathered from peer-reviewed literature or reports for the country in question, the species status is designated as 'verified'. • Names of the editors as well as the complete reference list of sources consulted is recorded. Key references used to develop the GRIIS checklists are provided as part of the metadata. References for every species recorded are available on request. • Incremental updates are implemented on an on-going basis. Bi-annual major updates are planned for all checklists. Notes on the annotations • Species names recorded from source information are referred to the GBIF taxonomic editor; if the source species name is a synonym, the accepted name is also recorded. This process contributes to the application of a consistent taxonomy across all inventories. • Higher taxonomy - Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Genus and Species with species authority. • Environment system – terrestrial / freshwater / brackish / marine/ host and combinations thereof • Provenance - a) as recorded by the source information, b) as interpreted by the compiler - three options are applied alien, native/alien (if the species is native in a part of a country and alien in another part), provenance uncertain/cryptogenic • Invasiveness is based on evidence of impact Note: In cases where country editors have not been identified, the checklist is published after the GRIIS unit validates the checklist. The GRIIS team members are listed as originators of the checklist. The checklist is reviewed by country editors once they have been identified and the expert’s names are listed as originators of the checklist.

Personas asociadas al proyecto:

Shyama Pagad

Métodos de Muestreo

This annotated checklist is focused on introduced (alien) and invasive species that are known to occur in Malta The International Union for Conservation of Nature, (IUCN) describes an Introduced/ Alien and Invasive alien species as follows: An Introduced or Alien species means a species, subspecies, or lower taxon occurring outside of its natural range (past or present) and dispersal potential (i.e. outside the range it occupies naturally or could not occupy without direct or indirect introduction or care by humans) and includes any part, gametes or propagule of such species that might survive and subsequently reproduce. An Invasive Alien Species is an alien species which becomes established in natural or semi-natural ecosystems or habitat, is an agent of change, and threatens native biological diversity. In GRIIS, species are recorded as having an impact (as 'yes' under 'isInvasive') if there is evidence of the species negatively impacting biodiversity, and including species that are widespread, spreading rapidly or present in high abundance (Pagad et al. 2018). This usage is relevant to the purpose of GRIIS, and consistent with the concept of impact as formulated by Parker et al. (1999) and now widely used (e.g. Didham et al. 2005, Strayer et al. 2006, McGeoch et al. 2010, 2012, Vila et al. 2011), where impact is a function not only of the per capita effect of an individual organism, but is a combined function of the effect, abundance and range size of a species. Impact can of course be defined in different ways, driven by different objectives, such as its usage in EICAT where it is defined as a measurable change to the properties of an ecosystem caused by an alien taxon (Hawkins et al. 2015).

Área de Estudio The geographic focus of this checklist is Malta
Control de Calidad The draft checklist is compiled by collating data and information through a comprehensive literature overview. Additional steps implemented to control the quality of the data are described below. Taxonomic harmonization and normalization using the GBIF taxonomic backbone To harmonize all species names across countries, species lists are subjected to a normalization process in which taxon rank and taxonomic status are identified and assigned. Spelling and other errors in assigning species authorship are also corrected. Data validation The Project Personnel complete a review and validate all the annotations, especially those on provenance and 'invasive' status of the species based on evidence of impact. Data verification The checklist is submitted to a network of country editors for a review of both accuracy of records, annotations, and identification of any significant gaps in the data. Data verification is an iterative process and the activity for a particular version is declared complete on agreement of all relevant country editors (see versioning details below). One of the key tenets of the GRIIS project has been engagement with country editors in the verification process and as custodians of country checklists. While this has been possible in the majority of countries, for a small number of countries this engagement process has not succeeded in delivering a verified checklist. In these cases, the GRIIS Project Personnel have completed the validation of the species records but continue to work towards identifying country experts.

Descripción de la metodología paso a paso:

  1. Data collation and categorization Data filtering and categorization/ classification Taxonomic harmonization and normalization Data validation Data verification
  2. The published methods underpinning GRIIS and each checklist are described in Pagad et al 2018.

Referencias Bibliográficas

  1. Hamer, M., Victor, J., Smith, G.F. (2012). Best Practice Guide for Compiling, Maintaining and Disseminating National Species Checklists, version 1.0, released in October 2012. Copenhagen: Global Biodiversity Information Facility, 40 pp, ISBN: 87-92020-48-8, Accessible at
  2. Pagad S, Genovesi P, Carnevali L, Schigel D, McGeoch MA (2018) Introducing the Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. Scientific Data, 5, 170202.
  3. Parker I, Simberloff D, Lonsdale W. et al. (1999) Impact: Toward a Framework for Understanding the Ecological Effects of Invaders. Biological Invasions 1, 3–19 (1999).
  4. Didham RK, Tylianakis JM, Hutchison MA, Ewers RM, Gemmell NJ. (2005) Are invasive species the drivers of ecological change? Trends Ecol Evol. 2005 Sep;20(9):470-4. Epub 2005 Jul 21.
  5. Strayer DL, Eviner VT, Jeschke JM, Pace ML. (2006) Understanding the long-term effects of species invasions. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21(11):645-51
  6. McGeoch MA, Butchart SHM, Spear D, Marais E. Kleynhans EJ, Symes A, Chanson J, Hoffmann M. (2010) Global indicators of biological invasion: species numbers, biodiversity impact and policy responses. Diversity and Distributions Volume16, Issue1 January 2010.
  7. McGeoch, M.A., Spear, D., Kleynhans, E.J. & Marais, E. 2012. Uncertainty in invasive alien species listing. Ecological Applications 22, 959-971. 10.1890/11-1252.1
  8. Vilà M, Espinar JL, Hejda M, Hulme PE, Jarošík V, Maron JL, Pergl J, Schaffner U, Sun Y, Pyšek P. (2011) Ecological impacts of invasive alien plants: a meta‐analysis of their effects on species, communities and ecosystems. Ecology Letters Volume14, Issue7 July 2011 Pages 702-708
  9. Hawkins CL, Bacher S, Essl F, Hulme PE, Jeschke JM, Kühn I, Kumschick S, Nentwig W, Pergl J, Pyšek P, Rabitsch W, Richardson DM, Vilà M, Wilson JRU, Genovesi P, Blackburn TM. (2015) Framework and guidelines for implementing the proposed IUCN Environmental Impact Classification for Alien Taxa (EICAT) Diversity and Distributions Volume21, Issue11 November 2015 Pages 1360-1363
  10. Arias, A., et al. (2013). "Biology and new records of the invasive species Branchiomma bairdi (Annelida: Sabellidae) in the Mediterranean Sea." Mediterranean Marine Science 14(1): 162-171.
  11. Azzurro, E., et al. (2013). "The rocky-reef fish assemblages of Malta and Lampedusa islands (Strait of Sicily, Mediterranean Sea): a visual census study in a changing biogeographical sector." Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 93(8): 2015.
  12. Casha, A., et al. (2011). "Bromus cathatrticus Vahl (Fam. Poaceae): a new record for the Maltese Islands."
  13. Deidun, A., et al. (2015). "First record of the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin, 1789) from Malta."
  14. Deidun, A., et al. (2018). "Invasion by non-indigenous freshwater decapods of Malta and Sicily, central Mediterranean Sea." Journal of Crustacean Biology 38(6): 748-753.
  15. Evans, J., et al. (2015). "Updated review of marine alien species and other ‘newcomers’ recorded from the Maltese Islands (Central Mediterranean)." Mediterranean Marine Science 16(1): 225-244.
  16. Ellul, T., et al. (2019). "Invasion alert: rapid range expansion of Caulerpa taxifolia var. distichophylla in Maltese waters (central Mediterranean)." BioInvasions Record 8(2).
  17. Gatt, P., et al. (2009). "First record of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse)(Diptera: Culicidae) in Malta." European Mosquito Bulletin(27): 56-64.
  18. Goud, J. and C. Mifsud (2009). "Fulvia fragilis (Forsskål in Niebuhr, 1775)(Bivalvia: Cardiidae), an alien species new to the Maltese malacofauna." Aquatic Invasions 4(2): 389-391.
  19. Mifsud, S. (2009). "Update on the Maltese flora (Central Mediterranean) including very rare species of species thought to be extinct from mainland Malta or its Islands." Central Mediterranean Naturalist 5(1): 7-16.
  20. Mifsud, S. (2010). "First occurences of Lemna minuta Kunth (fam. Lemnaceae) in the Maltese islands."
  21. Mifsud, S. (2011). A floristic survey on the Gozitan islets of Tac-Cawl and Tal-Halfa in the Maltese islands. MaltaWildPlants, com Online Publications (Ref: MWPOP-001), Article Update Version.
  22. Mifsud, S. (2011). "A study of the genus Persicaria Miller (Polygonaceae) in the Maltese Islands."
  23. Mifsud, S. (2017). "Contribution to the alien flora of the Maltese Islands: New records, observations on invasive species and taxonomic updates." Bulletin of the entomological Society of malta 9: 81.
  24. Mifsud, S. (2018). "Contribution to the flora of the Maltese Islands: Euphorbia subg. Chamaesyce and Euphorbia exigua s. l.(Euphorbiaceae)." Phytotaxa 372(2): 153-166.
  25. Mifsud, S. and A. Casha (2010). "Two new alien grasses from sand dunes of Ghadira bay in Malta."
  26. Mifsud, S., et al. (2016). "An updated flora of selmunett (St. Paul's Island) including mosses and lichens."
  27. Schembri, P. J., et al. (2015). "It was only a matter of time: occurrence of Caulerpa taxifolia (Vahl) C. Agardh var. distichophylla (Sonder) Verlaque, Huisman and Procaccini in the Maltese Islands (Chlorophyta, Ulvophyceae, Caulerpaceae)."
  28. Sciberras, J. and A. Sciberras (2010). "A contribution to the knowledge of alien flora in the Maltese Islands."
  29. Sciberras, M. and P. J. Schembri (2008). "Biology and interspecific interactions of the alien crab Percnon gibbesi in the Maltese Islands." Marine Biology Research 4(5): 321-332.
  30. Schembri, P. J. and E. Lanfranco (1996). "Introduced species in the Maltese Islands."
  31. Sciberras, A. and P. J. Schembri (2006). "Occurrence of the alien Bedriaga's frog (Rana bedriagae) Camerano, 1882 in the Maltese Islands, and implications for conservation."
  32. Vella, A. and N. Vella (2018). "Safeguarding marine biodiversity in a changing world: maltese small-scale fisheries and alien species." Selected studies in biodiversity. InTech publishers, London: 83-99.
  33. Vella, A., et al. (2016). "The first records of Indo-Pacific sergeant Abudefduf vaigiensis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1825) and further notes on the occurrence of sergeant major A. saxatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) in Malta: expanding populations of an invasive genus in the Mediterranean Sea." Journal of the Black Sea/Mediterranean Environment 22(1): 1-15.
  34. Vella, N., et al. (2017). "First Scientific Records of the Invasive Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852)(Crustacea: Cambaridae) in Malta, a Threat to Fragile Freshwater Habitats." Natural and Engineering Sciences 2(2): 58-66.

Metadatos Adicionales

Versioning The original versions of each country checklist (v1.0) undergo two potential types of updates: 1. Major updates: These happen when batches of new species or records become available, usually addressing multiple taxonomic groups simultaneously. Each checklist is assigned a new version number after a major update (e.g. from v1.0 to v2.0). 2. Incremental updates: These are smaller ongoing updates involving the addition of new species or records based on new publications as well as taxonomic or other updates. Incremental updates to a checklist are associated with a subversion number, e.g. v1.1. The checklist version number is visible/available on the citation.

Propósito The resource will be a support to countries to make progress to achieve Aichi Biodiversity Target 9 -in the development of their National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plans, their National Invasive Alien Species Strategy and Action Plan, target setting and monitoring.
Descripción de mantenimiento Updates with any new data and any revisions of existing data will be made on an ongoing basis.
Identificadores Alternativos dfaf6b4a-43d6-4649-82c7-60f34ddf13ba