Amphibians and Reptiles in Protected Areas in Ilocos Norte Province, Luzon Island, Northern Philippines

Latest version published by HerpWatch Pilipinas, Inc. on May 5, 2019 HerpWatch Pilipinas, Inc.

We report here a sample-event dataset of our herpetofaunal surveys in Protected Areas (PAs) in Ilocos Norte Province, Luzon Island, the Philippines, conducted from 2017 to 2018. We used a combination of systematic sampling using standardized techniques and opportunistic sampling to survey the diversity of amphibians and reptiles in three Protected Areas -- (1) Paoay Lake National Park, (2) Metropolitan Ilocos Norte Watershed Forest Reserve, and (3) Kalbario Patapat Natural Park, and their environs in Ilocos Norte Province. Our survey resulted in distribution records of 38 alien and native amphibian and reptile species (including new provincial records of seven reptile species), bringing to a total of 65 amphibian and reptile species for the province of Ilocos Norte (see Brown et al., 2012, Check List 8[3]: 469-490).

This survey is part of an invasive alien species-targeted survey and a long-term monitoring programme of HerpWatch Pilipinas, Inc., and respective Protected Areas. The dataset will be updated annually by HerpWatch Pilipinas, Inc. The development of this dataset was made possible through the project of Arman N. Pili with the National Geographic Science and Exploration Asia (ASIA 57-16): "Aliens versus natives: understanding the dynamics of competition in food and habitat resources between invasive alien frogs and endemic frogs in a global biodiversity hotspot”; and a project of HerpWatch Pilipinas, Inc. (HWP), in collaboration with the Biodiversity Management Bureau of the Philippine Department of Environment and Natural Rersources (BMB-DENR) and The University of Santo Tomas – Biodiversity, Ecology, Systematics, and Taxonomy Group (BEST): “Alien Amphibians and Reptiles, a Threat to Philippine Biosecurity: Developing a National Invasive Alien Amphibian and Reptile Species Inventory and Occurrence Database and an Observation and Monitoring System” Project (BIFA03_26) funded by the Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan.

Data Records

The data in this sampling event resource has been published as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A), which is a standardized format for sharing biodiversity data as a set of one or more data tables. The core data table contains 212 records. 1 extension data tables also exist. An extension record supplies extra information about a core record. The number of records in each extension data table is illustrated below.

  • Event (core)
    212
  • Occurrence 
    275

This IPT archives the data and thus serves as the data repository. The data and resource metadata are available for download in the downloads section. The versions table lists other versions of the resource that have been made publicly available and allows tracking changes made to the resource over time.

Downloads

Download the latest version of this resource data as a Darwin Core Archive (DwC-A) or the resource metadata as EML or RTF:

Data as a DwC-A file download 212 records in English (18 KB) - Update frequency: not planned
Metadata as an EML file download in English (30 KB)
Metadata as an RTF file download in English (19 KB)

Versions

The table below shows only published versions of the resource that are publicly accessible.

How to cite

Researchers should cite this work as follows:

Pili A (2019): Amphibians and Reptiles in Protected Areas in Ilocos Norte Province, Luzon Island, Northern Philippines. v1.2. HerpWatch Pilipinas, Inc.. Dataset/Samplingevent. https://cloud.gbif.org/bifa/resource?r=ilocos_norte_herps&v=1.2

Rights

Researchers should respect the following rights statement:

The publisher and rights holder of this work is HerpWatch Pilipinas, Inc.. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 License.

GBIF Registration

This resource has been registered with GBIF, and assigned the following GBIF UUID: 385f5b18-5ceb-4458-ab4b-84d7850034fd.  HerpWatch Pilipinas, Inc. publishes this resource, and is itself registered in GBIF as a data publisher endorsed by Participant Node Managers Committee.

Keywords

Samplingevent; Herpetofauna; Philippines; Biodiversity; Reptile; Amphibian; invasive alien species

Contacts

Who created the resource:

Arman Pili
Science Research Specialist
HerpWatch Pilipinas, Inc. #1198 Benavidez St., Unit 1202, Tondo 1003 Manila City Metropolitan Manila PH

Who can answer questions about the resource:

Arman Pili
Science Research Specialist
HerpWatch Pilipinas, Inc. #1198 Benavidez St., Unit 1202, Tondo 1003 Manila City Metropolitan Manila PH
Mae Lowe Diesmos
Corporate Secretary
HerpWatch Pilipinas, Inc. #1198 Benavidez St., Unit 1202, Tondo 1003 Manila City Metropolitan Manila PH
Arvin Diesmos

Who filled in the metadata:

Arman Pili
Science Research Specialist
HerpWatch Pilipinas, Inc. #1198 Benavidez St., Unit 1202, Tondo 1003 Manila City Metropolitan Manila PH

Who else was associated with the resource:

User
The Global Biodiversity Information Facility
Hosting Institution
The Global Biodiversity Information Facility Universitetsparken 15 DK-2100 Copenhagen DK
https://www.gbif.org/
User
Community Environment and Natural Resources Office - Bangui
Community Environment and Natural Resources Office - Bangui Pan-Philippine Hwy Bangui Ilocos Norte PH
User
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) - Biodiversity Management Bureau (BMB)
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) - Biodiversity Management Bureau (BMB) Ninoy Aquino Parks and Wildlife Center Quezon City Metropolitan Manila PH
http://www.bmb.gov.ph/
User
Community Environment and Natural Resources Office - Laoag City
Community Environment and Natural Resources Office - Laoag City Barangay Barit Laoag City Ilocos Norte PH

Geographic Coverage

The general geographic scope of the dataset is Ilocos Norte Province, the Philippines. Herpetofaunal surveys were conducted in Protected Areas and their environs in Ilocos Norte Province, Northern Luzon Island, the Philippines. -- Paoay Lake National Park (PLNP), Metropolitan Ilocos Norte Watershed and Forest Reserve (MINWFR), and Kalbario-Patapat Natural Park (KPNP), including the sand dunes of Municipality of Paoay.

Bounding Coordinates South West [17.508, 120.366], North East [18.625, 121.069]

Taxonomic Coverage

The taxonomic coverage of this dataset includes 16 species of frogs and toads (Class Amphibia: Order Anura: six families), 21 species of snakes, lizards, and geckos (Class Reptilia: Order Squamata: 8 families), and one species of turtle (Class Reptilia: Order Testudines: Family Bataguridae).

Species  Ahaetulla prasina,  Boiga philippina,  Bronchocela marmorata,  Coelognathus erythrura,  Cuora amboinensis,  Cyrtodactylus philippinicus,  Draco spilopterus,  Dryophiopis philippina,  Eutropis multicarinata,  Fejervarya vittigera,  Gekko gecko,  Gekko kikuchi,  Hemidactylus bookii,  Hemidactylus frenatus,  Hemidactylus platyurus,  Hoplobatrachus rugulosus,  Kaloula kalingensis,  Kaloula picta,  Kaloula pulchra,  Kaloula rigida,  Lamprolepis smaragdina,  Limnonectes macrocephalus,  Limnonectes woodworthi,  Malayopython reticulatus,  Occidozyga laevis,  Oligodon anchorus,  Otosaurus cumingi,  Oxyrhabdium leporinum,  Platymantis cagayanensis,  Polypedates leucomystax,  Psammodynastes pulverulentus,  Pulchrana similis,  Rhacophorus pardalis,  Rhinella marina,  Sanguirana igorota,  Sanguirana luzonensis,  Trimeresurus flavomaculatus,  Varanus marmoratus

Temporal Coverage

Formation Period February 2017, June 2017, April 2018, November 2018, and in the future.

Project Data

The main goal of this Project is to fill taxonomic, geographical, and historical gaps in species occurrence and sampling-event data, focused on the 13 alien amphibians and reptiles in the Philippines, and develop an online national platform for long-term observation and monitoring of alien species invasions, with alien amphibian and reptile as pilot group. This will be achieved by: (1) assembling historical and geographical data from literature and natural history collections; (2) generating species occurrence and sampling-event data by conducting targeted herpetofaunal surveys in two key conservation areas, namely, Ilocos Norte Province, Luzon Island and Palawan Island, Palawan Province; (3) reconstruct invasion histories and develop ‘Pest Risk Maps’; and, (4) ultimately, developing an observation and monitoring system, named “DAYO” (filipino for “alien”) which we envision to be an online, open-access national platform and repository of species occurrence data and sampling-event data dedicated to invasive alien species in the Philippines, with alien amphibians and reptiles as pilot group, in the form of a web portal and a smartphone application. (5) In addition, Information campaigns and training workshops targeting key stakeholders (i.e., communities, environmental managers) will be conducted to promote and encourage citizen science and contributions from volunteers. HerpWatch Pilipinas, Inc. (HWP) leads the project in assembling species occurrence and sampling-event data, conducting herpetofaunal surveys, data analysis, preparation of data papers and original articles for publication, preparation of technical and financial reports, and official communication with GBIF-BIFA. The Biodiversity Management Bureau of the Philippine Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR-BMB) helps in the design and execution of project and logistics in information campaigns and training workshops. The University of Santo Tomas – Biodiversity, Ecology, Systematics, and Taxonomy Group (BEST) provides consultancy and support for meeting venues, fieldwork, and laboratory.

Title Biodiversity Information Fund for Asia (BIFA) – BIFA3_026: Alien Amphibians and Reptiles, a Threat to Philippine Biosecurity: Developing a National Invasive Alien Amphibian and Reptile Species Inventory and Occurrence Database and an Observation and Monitoring System
Identifier BIFA3_026
Funding The Ministry of the Environment, Government of Japan, through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) Biodiversity Information Fund for Asia (BIFA) programme.
Study Area Description (1) Philippine Archipelago, the Philippines; (2) Ilocos Norte Province, Luzon Island, the Philippines; (3) Palawan Province, Palawan Island, the Philippines

The personnel involved in the project:

Sampling Methods

We conducted systematic herpetofaunal surveys following the protocol of timed visual encounter survey (transect and patch sampling method; Crump & Scott 1994). We established a total of thirty 10 X 100m standardized transect strips, spaced 100m apart, in different habitat types (e.g., along the road, parallel to lake shoreline, along streams in secondary growth forests, trail and non-trail transects in secondary growth forests), in an effort to avoid sampling bias. Moreover, we established 10 X 10m habitat patches (i.e., sampling plots) in cave habitats and one-hectare habitat patches were established in agricultural areas. We surveyed transect and habitat patches for approximately 45 minutes during day-light (07:00–10:00 h) and at night (18:00–23:00 h). To avoid disturbance, we made sure that transects surveyed during the day were not traversed at night, and vice-versa, on successive days/nights. We also conducted general observations and opportunistic sampling around the camp and trails to maximize information collected from the study areas. We searched for animals by visually scanning the ground, over rocks and boulders, in pits, cavities, and crevices of limestone karsts, and vegetation, while raking the forest floor litter, probing epiphytes and tree hollows, upturning dead logs, debris, rocks, and man-made items. The animals that we encountered during the surveys were recorded, as were associated data, including their habitat and activity upon first notice (e.g., calling, foraging, mating, etc.). We collected a limited number of voucher specimens for each species that was encountered and were preserved following McDiarmid (1994) and Gotte et al. (2016). We include below whenever possible the catalog numbers corresponding to voucher specimens deposited at the Philippine National Museum of Natural Hisotry (PNM). We followed the field survey protocols as outlined in an existing active Wildlife Gratuitous Permit to Collect (GP) No. 277 (c/o Arman N. Pili, University of Santo Tomas) and 282 (c/o Mae Lowe L. Diesmos, HerpWatch Pilipinas, Inc., provided by the Biodiversity Management Bureau (BMB) of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources). We followed Brown & Alcala (1978), Brown & Alcala (1980), Alcala and Brown (1998), and Alcala (1986) for initial species identification. These identifications were verified by A.C. Diesmos. We adopted the taxonomic arrangements of AmphibiaWeb (2019), Amphibian species of the world (Frost 2019), and the Reptile Database (Uetz et al. 2019).

Study Extent Herpetofaunal surveys were conducted in Paoay Lake National Park (PLNP), Metropolitan Ilocos Norte Watershed and Forest Reserve (MINWFR), and Kalbario-Patapat Natural Park (KPNP), including the sand dunes of Municipality of Paoay.
Quality Control The dataset was cleaned and validated using OpenRefine and Species Name Resolver. The dataset was standardized to Darwin Core format.

Method step description:

  1. Sampling and survey method -- Systematic herpetofaunal surveys following the protocol of timed visual encounter survey (transect and patch sampling method; Crump & Scott 1994). We established a total of thirty 10 X 100m standardized transect strips, spaced 100m apart, in different habitat types (e.g., along the road, parallel to lake shoreline, along streams in secondary growth forests, trail and non-trail transects in secondary growth forests), in an effort to avoid sampling bias. Moreover, we established 10 X 10m habitat patches (i.e., sampling plots) in cave habitats and one-hectare habitat patches were established in agricultural areas. we surveyed transect and habitat patches for approximately 45 minutes during day-light (07:00–10:00 h) and at night (18:00–23:00 h). To avoid disturbance, we made sure that transects surveyed during the day were not traversed at night, and vice-versa, on successive days/nights. We also conducted general observations and opportunistic sampling around the camp and trails to maximize information collected from the study areas. We searched for animals by visually scanning the ground, over rocks and boulders, in pits, cavities, and crevices of limestone karsts, and vegetation, while raking the forest floor litter, probing epiphytes and tree hollows, upturning dead logs, debris, rocks, and man-made items. The animals that we encountered during the surveys were recorded, as were associated data, including their habitat and activity upon first notice (e.g., calling, foraging, mating, etc.).
  2. Preservation method -- We collected a limited number of voucher specimens for each species that was encountered and were preserved following McDiarmid (1994) and Gotte et al. (2016). We include below whenever possible the catalog numbers corresponding to voucher specimens deposited at the Philippine National Museum of Natural Hisotry (PNM).
  3. Permits -- We followed the field survey protocols as outlined in an existing active Wildlife Gratuitous Permit to Collect (GP) No. 277 (c/o Arman N. Pili, University of Santo Tomas) and 282 (c/o Mae Lowe L. Diesmos, HerpWatch Pilipinas, Inc., provided by the Biodiversity Management Bureau (BMB) of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources).
  4. Identification and taxonomic reference -- We followed Brown & Alcala (1978), Brown & Alcala (1980), Alcala and Brown (1998), and Alcala (1986) for initial species identification. These identifications were verified by A.C. Diesmos. We adopted the taxonomic arrangements of AmphibiaWeb (2019), Amphibian species of the world (Frost 2019), and the Reptile Database (Uetz et al. 2019).
  5. Database management -- field sheets were transcribed into excel files by field members one week post-survey. Specimens were deposited to the Philippine National Museum of Natural History and the identities were authenticated by the resident curator. The dataset was cleaned and validated using OpenRefine and Species Names Validator. The dataset was standardized to Darwin Core format.

Additional Metadata

Alternative Identifiers 385f5b18-5ceb-4458-ab4b-84d7850034fd
https://cloud.gbif.org/bifa/resource?r=ilocos_norte_herps